Again, we start with ResEdit to create our dialogs. Not only do we want a main dialog this time but also an "About" dialog. This example is less than complete since we do not provide a BNDL resource and related stuff that an application cannot be without. We are able to do this when building a python applet since BuildApplet will substitute default resources for BNDL, etc. when none are supplied (See below.) "Inside Mac" or various books on Macintosh programming will help here. Also, you can refer to the resource files provided in the Python source distribution for some of the python-specific points of BNDL programming: the "appletbundle.rsrc" file is what is used for creating applets if you don't provide your own resource file.
When creating your own BNDL resouorces, keep in mind that the Finder gets confused if you have more than one application with the same signature. This may be due to some incorrectness on the side of "BuildApplet", I am not sure. There is one case when you definitely need a unique signature: when you create an applet that has its own data files and you want the user to be able to start your applet by double-clicking one of the datafiles.
Let's have a look at dnslookup-2.rsrc, our resource file. Dialog 512 is the main window which has one button (Lookup), two labels and two text entry areas, one of which is used for output only. The "Quit" button has disappeared, because its function is handled by a menu choice. Here's what it will look like at run time:
FrameWorkmodule, a nifty piece of code that handles all the gory Mac details of event loop programming, menubar installation and all the other code that is the same for every Mac program in the world. Like most standard modules, FrameWork will run some sample test code when you invoke it as a main program, so try it now. It will create a menu bar with an Apple menu with the about box and a "File" menu with some pythonesque choices (which do nothing interesting, by the way) and a "Quit" command that works.
If you have not usedAfter the imports we get the definitions of resource-IDs in our resource file, slightly changed from the previous version of our program. The main program is also similar to our previous version, with one important exception: we first check to see whether our resource is available before opening the resource file. Why is this? Because later, when we will have converted the script to an applet, our resources will be available in the applet file and we don't need the separate resource file anymore.
FrameWorkbefore you may want to first take a look at the Pathetic EDitor example, which builds a minimal text editor using FrameWork and TextEdit. On the other hand: we don't use many features of FrameWork, so you could also continue with this document.
Next comes the definition of our main class,
DNSLookup, which inherits
FrameWork.Application. The Application class handles the
menu bar and the main event loop and event dispatching. In the
__init__ routine we first let the base class initialize
itself, then we create our modeless dialog and finally we jump into
the main loop. The main loop continues until we call
which we will do when the user selects "Quit". When we create
the instance of
MyDialog (which inherits
DialogWindow, which inherits
Window) we pass
a reference to the application object, this reference is used to tell
Application about our new window. This enables the event loop to keep
track of all windows and dispatch things like update events and mouse
makeusermenus() method (which is called sometime
during the Application
__init__ routine) creates a File
menu with a Quit command (shortcut command-Q), which will callback to
our quit() method.
Quit(), in turn, calls
causes the mainloop to terminate at a convenient time.
Application provides a standard about box, but we override this by
providing our own
do_about() method which shows an about
box from a resource as a modal dialog. This piece of code should look
familiar to you from the previous example program. That do_about is
called when the user selects About from the Apple menu is, again,
taken care of by the __init__ routine of Application.
MyDialog class is the container for our main
window. Initialization is again done by first calling the base class
__init__ function and finally setting the local variable
Do_itemhit() is called when an item is selected in this
dialog by the user. We are passed the item number (and the original
event structure, which we normally ignore). The code is similar to the
main loop of our previous example program: a switch depending on the
Dnslookup() is quite similar to our previous
Actually, "standalone" is probably not the correct term here, since an applet does still depend on a lot of the python environment: the PythonCore shared library, the Python Preferences file, the python Lib folder and any other modules that the main module depends on. It is possible to get rid of all these dependencies and create true standalone applications in Python, but this is a bit difficult. See Standalone Applications in Python for details. For this document, by standalone we mean here that the script has the look-and-feel of an application, including the ability to have its own document types, be droppable, etc.The easiest way to create an applet is to take your source file and drop it onto "BuildApplet", located in the Python home folder. This will create an applet with the same name as your python source with the ".py" stripped. Also, if a resource file with the same name as your source but with ".rsrc" extension is available the resources from that file will be copied to your applet too. If there is no resource file for your script a set of default resources will be used, and the applet will have the default creator 'Pyt0'. The latter also happens if you do have a resource file but without the BNDL combo. Actually, as in the present example.
If you need slightly more control over the BuildApplet process you can double-click it, and you will get dialogs for source and destination of the applet. The rest of the process, including locating the resource file, remains the same.
Note that though our example application completely bypasses the normal python user interface this is by no means necessary. Any python script can be turned into an applet, and all the usual features of the interpreter still work.
That's all for this example, you may now return to the table of contents to pick another topic.